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导致古代木质沉船腐蚀的生物类群及其腐蚀历程
谢梦
0
()
摘要:
海洋出水木质文物和陆地考古发掘出土木质文物相比,生物类病害表现得特别明显。借鉴海洋工程学和“南海I号”相关研究成果,我们将导致古代木质沉船腐蚀的生物分为三大类:海洋植物、海洋动物和海洋微生物。船体的腐蚀过程主要分为三个阶段:固相表面形成生物膜阶段;大型污损生物等的幼体附着于前期形成的生物膜之上阶段;群落趋于稳定、船体木质逐步降解阶段。沉船腐蚀过程中不同生物类群之间共生或寄生在一起形成动态平衡,因此,对于出水木质文物的生物修复应该在保证生物群落稳定的状态下进行,避免单一种群剧烈发展对文物造成的二次损害。
关键词:  海洋出水木质文物;木质沉船;生物类病害;腐蚀 Biological Groups Involved and Corrosion Process of Ancient Wooden Shipwreck Relics Xie Meng
DOI:
基金项目:
Biological Groups Involved and Corrosion Process of Ancient Wooden Shipwreck Relics
Xie Meng
()
Abstract:
The wooden relics excavated from marine archaeological site suffer much more biological diseases than the ones from land. Owing to the development of ocean engineering and the exploration of “Nanhai No.1” shipwreck relics, we classify the organisms that caused the corrosion of ancient wooden shipwrecks into three categories:marine plants, marine animals and marine microorganisms. The corrosion process of ship hull mainly consist of three stages:in the first stage, biofilm is formed on the solid phase surface of ship hull; In the second stage, larvae of large fouling organisms are attached to biofilm formed in the earlier stage; In the third stage, the organism community tends to be stable and the wood parts of ship hull degrades gradually. In the process of shipwreck corrosion, different biological groups coexist together or parasitize to form a dynamic balance. Therefore, the bioremediation of the wood shipwreck relics should be carried out under the condition of ensuring the stability of the biological community, avoiding the secondary damage caused by the rapid development of a single species population to the wood relics.
Key words:  marine wooden relics, wooden shipwreck, biological diseases, corrosion

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